Abiotic and biotic degradation and toxicity of oxo-biodegradable plastics in marine waters
– OXOMAR, link


Microbial degradation of plastic in aqueous solutions demonstrated by CO2 evolution
and quantification – 15 August 2019

Queen Mary University London (QMUL) Ruth-Sarah RoseKatherine H. Richardson,
Elmeri Johannes LatvanenChina A. HansonIan A. Sanders


Peter Susman QC – Oxo-biodegradable Plastic Technology – 14 page report and
opinion – 11 November 2018

Eyheraguibel, et al., Environmental scenarii for the degradation of oxo-polymers,
Chemosphere 198 (2018) 182-190 –May 2018

Dussud, et al., Evidence of niche partitioning among bacteria living on plastics, organic particles
and surrounding seawaters, Environmental Pollution 236 (2018) 807-816 – May 2018


Eyheraguibel, et al., Characterization of oxidized oligomers from polyethylene films by mass
spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy before and after biodegradation by a Rhodococcus
rhodochrous strain, Chemosphere 184 (2017) 366-374 – October 2017


Chiellini, E. “Oxo-bioderabili: Realtà, Non Fiction,” Com.Pack, Vol 4, 2013, pp 16-20

Fontanella, S., Bonhomme, S., Brusson, J.-M., Pitteri, S., Samuel, G., et al, “Comparison
biodegradability of various polypropylene films  containing prooxidant additives based on
Mn, Mn/Fe or Co,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol 98, 2013, pp 875-884

Ignacy Jakubowicz, SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, Sweden
Evaluation of degradability of biodegradable polyethylene (PE), Polymer Degradation
and Stability 80 (2003) 39–43


Chiellini, E and Corti, A., “Plastiche Oxo-biodegradabili. Cosa Sono ed a Cosa Servono,
” La Chimica e I’Industria, 2012, pp 93-97.

Corti, A., Sudhakar, M., and Chiellini, E., “Assessment of the Whole Environmental
Degradation of Oxo-biodegradable Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) Films
Designed for Mulching Applications,” J. Polym. Environ., Vol 20, 2012, pp.1007-1018


Degradability of linear polyolefins under natural weathering, Polymer Degradation and
Stability 96 (2011) 703-707

Challenge, 2nd Edition, P Fornasiero and S. M, Gaziani, Eds., Taylor & Francis Group
LLC 2011, pp 91-141

Chiellini, E., Corti, A., D’Antone, S., Wiles, D., “Oxobiodegradable Polymers: Present Status
and Perspectives” in Handbook of Biodegradable Polymers, A. Lendlein and M. Schroeter,
Eds., Wiley-VCH, Winheim, Germany, 2011 pp 379-397

Jakubowicz, I. et al, “Kinetics of abiotic and biotic degradability of low-density polyethylene
containing prodegradant additives and its effect on the growth of microbial communities,”
Polymer Degradation & Stability, Vol 96, 2011, p 919.

Kinetics of abiotic and biotic degradability of low-density polyethylene containing prodegradant
additives and its effect on the growth of microbial communities, Polymer Degradation and
Stability 96 (2011) 919-928


Corti, A. et al, “Oxidation and biodegradation of polyethylene films containing pro-oxidant additives:
Synergistic effects of sunlight exposure, thermal aging and fungal biodegradation,
”95 Polymer Degradation and Stability, 2010, 1106-1114

Corti, A., Muniyasamy, S., Vitali, M., Imam, S. H., and Chiellini, E., “Oxidation and Biodegradation
of Polyethylene Films Containing Pro-oxidant Additives

Pro-oxidant Additives: Synergistic Effects of Sunlight Exposure, Thermal Aging and Fungal
Biodegradation,” Polym. Degrad. Stab, Vol 95, 2010, pp. 1106-1114

Fontanella S, Bonhomme S, Kountny M, Husarova L, Brusson J-M, Courtavault J-P, Pitteri S,
Samuel G, Pichon G, Lemaire J, Delort A-M.  Comparison of the biodegradability of various
polyethylen films containing prooxidant additives” Polymer Degradation and Stability Vol 95,
2010, pp1011-1021

Comparison of the biodegradability of various polyethylene films containing prooxidant additives,
Polymer Degradation and Stability 95 (2010) 1011-1021


Telmo Ojeda, Department of Soil, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Brazil • Abiotic
and biotic degradation of oxo-biodegradable polyethylene, Polymer Degradation
and Stability 94 (2009) 965–970

Martelli, S. M., Fernandes, E. G., and Chiellini, E., “Thermal Analysis of Soil-buried Oxo-biodegradable
Polyethylene Based Blends,” J. Therm.Anal. Calorim, Vol 97, 2009, pp. 853-858

Lemaire J, Bonhoome SOxobiodégradable, une mention qui se mérite Plastiqués et Caoutchoucs
Mazazine N0 868 Juillet-aoÛt 2009

Koutny, P. Amato, P. Muchova, J. Ruzicka, A-M. Delort. Soil bacterial strains able to grow on the
surface of oxidized polyethylene film containing prooxidant additives, International Biodeterioration
and Biodegradation, 2009, 63, 354-357


Koutny, A-M Delort, Methods in Study of Biodegradation of Water Insoluble Polymer Materials.
In: Environmental Biodegradation Research Focus, nova Publishers, New York, 2008, 239-257
(invited book chapter)


Chiellini, E, Cinelli, P and Corti A, “Developments & future Trends for Environmentally Degradable
Plastics” in Renewable Resources and Renewable Energy: A Global Challenge, S. M. Graziani
and P Fornasiero, Eds, CRC Press, 2007, pp 63-118

Oxo-biodegradable full carbon backbone polymers – biodegradation behaviour of thermally oxidized
polyethylene in an aqueous medium, Polymer Degradation and Stability 92 (2007) 1378-1383

Chiellini E, Corti A., and D’Antone, S., “Oxo-biodegradable Full Carbon Backbone Polymers
-Biodegradation Behaviour of Thermally Oxidized Polyethylene in an Aqueous Medium,
Polym Degrad Stab., Vol 92, 2007, pp 1378-1388

Chiellini, E., Corti, A., D’Antone, S., and Billingham, N. C., “Microbial Biomass Yield and Turnover in
Soil Burial Biodegradation Tests: Carbon Substrate Effects,” J.Polymer Environ,
Vot 15, 2007, pp 169-178


Gerald Scott, Aston University, Birmingham, UK • Invited Review: Green polymers, Polymer Degradation
and Stability 68 (2000) 1-7 • Polyolefins with controlled environmental degradability, Polymer Degradation
and Stability 91 (2006) 1581-1592

Koutny M, Lemaire J, Delort A.-M. Biodegradation of polyethylene films with pro-oxidant additives.
Chemosphere 2006b;  Vol 64:, pp1243-1252

Krzan, A., Hemjinda, S., Miertus, S., Corti, A., and Chiellini, E., “Standardization and Certification in
the Area of Environmentally Degradable Plastics,” Polym. Degrad. Stab., Vol 91, 2006, pp 2819-2833

Chiellini, E., Corti, A., D’Antone, S.,and Baciu, R., “Oxo-biodegradable Carbon Backbone Polymers-
Oxidative Degradation of Polyethylene under Accelerated Test Conditions,” Polym, Degrad. Stab,
Vol 91, 2006, pp 2739-2747

Koutny M, Lemaire J, Delort A.-M. Acquired biodegradability of polyethylene containing pro-oxidant
additives” Polymer Degradation and Stability Vol 91, 2006a, pp1495-1503

M. Koutny, N. Sancelme, C Dabin, N Pichon, A-M. Delort, J. Lemaire. Acquired biodegradability of
polyethylenes containing pro-oxidant additives. Polymer Degradaton and Stability,
2006, 91, 1945-1503

M. Koutny, J. Lemaire, A-M. Delort. Biodegradation of polyethylene films with prooxidant additives
(review article). Cheosphere, 2006, 64, 1243-1252

Acquired biodegradability of polyethylene containing pro-oxidant additives, Polymer Degradation and
Stability 91 (2006) 1495e1503 • Biodegradation of polyethylene films with pro-oxidant additives,
Chemosphere 64 (2006) 1243–1252

Evaluation of the rate of abiotic degradation of biodegradable polyethylene in various environments,
Polymer Degradation and Stability 91 (2006) 15561562

Emo Chiellini, Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Pisa, Italy –
Oxo-biodegradable carbon backbone polymers – Oxidative degradation of polyethylene under
accelerated test conditions, Polymer Degradation and Stability 91 (2006) 2739-2747


Albertsson, A-C et al “Environmental Degradation of Polyethelene,” Long term properties of polyolefins
Vol 169, 2004 P177.


Bonhomme S Cuer, A Delort A-M Lemaire, J Sancelme M et al “Environmental biodegradation of
polyethylene” Polym Degrad. Stab Vol 81, 2003, pp 441-552

Chiellini, E and Corti A., “A Simple Method Suitable to Test the Ultimate Biodegradability of
Environmentally Degradable Polymers,” Macromol, Symp., Vol 197, 2003, pp 381-395

Chiellini, E., Corti, A., and Swift, G., “Biodegradation of ThermallyOxidized, Fragmented Low-Density
Polyethylenes”, Polym. Degrad. Stab.,Vol 81, 2003, pp. 341-351


Degradable Polymers: Principles and Applications, 2nd edition, G. Scott, Ed., Kluwer.
Academic Publishers, 2002


Scott, G., “Environmentally degradable polyolefins: When, Why and How” in Expert group meeting
on Environmentally degradable plastics, Present Status and perspectives
Trieste, 2001, pp 37-48


Chiellini, E ., Corti, A., and Solaro, R., “Biodegradation of Poly(vinyl alcohol) Based Blown Films
Under Different Environmental Conditions,”Polym. Degrad.  Stab., Vol 64, 1999, pp. 305-312

Scott, G., “Biodegradable Polymers” in Polymers and the Environment, Royal Society of Chemistry,
1999, Chap 5.

Scott, G., “Green Polymers,” Polymer Degradation & Stability,Vol 68, 2000 pp 1 -7.

Scott, G., “The Role of Environmentally Degradable Polymers in Waste Management,”
Waste Management, May 1999, pp 38-39.


Albertsson, A.-C. et al, “Degradation product pattern and morphology changes as means to differentiate
abiotically and biotically aged degradable polyethylene,” Polymer, Vol 36, No.16,1995, p. 3075.

Guillet, J., “Plastics and the Environment” in Degradable Polymers: Principles and Applications,
Chapman & Hall, 1995, Chap 12

Scott, G. et al, “Degradable Polymers in Waste and Litter Control” in Degradable Polymers:
Principles and Applications
, Chapman & Hall, 1995, Chapter 13.


Arnaud R et al “Photo-oxidation and biodegradation of commercial photo-degradable polyethelenes”
Polymer Degradation and Stability Vol 46, 1994, P211

Scott, G., “Environmental Biodegradation of Hydrocarbon Polymers” inBiodegradable Plastics and
, Elsevier Science BV, 1994,pp 79-91

Jaques Lemaire, Centre National d’Evaluation de Photoprotection (CNEP), Universite Blaise Pascal,
France • Photooxidation and biodegradation of commercial photodegradable polyethylenes,
Polymer Degradation and Stability 46 (1994) 211-224